June-Yi Lee

June-Yi Lee
Associate Project Leader
Research Group
Earth System Predictability
  • Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Feb 2003.
    • Dissertation: Assessment of Potential Seasonal Predictability with a Multi-Model Dynamical-Statistical Ensemble System
  • Master of Science in Atmospheric Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, 1999.
  • Bachelor of Science in Earth Science Education, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea, 1997.
Work Experience
  • September 2015 - Present: Assistant Professor, Research Center for Climate Sciences, Pusan National University
  • August 2013 – August 2015: Brainpool Professor, Research Center for Climate Sciences, Pusan National University
  • October 2011 – 2015: WMO WWRP/THORPEX/WCRP Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Prediction Working Group Member
  • November 2011 - Present: WMO WWRP/THORPEX/YOTC MJO Task Force Member
  • August 2010 – Present: Research coordinator of the IntraSeasonal Variability Hindcast Experiment (ISVHE) international project supported by CLIVAR and NOAA CTB
  • August 2005 – July 2013: Research coordinator of the APEC Climate Center (APCC)/Climate Prediction and its Application to Society (CliPAS) international project
  • December 2012 – July 2013: Associate Researcher, International Pacific Research Center (IPRC), School of Ocean, Earth Science, and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawaii<
  • May 2008 – November 2012: Assistant Researcher, International Pacific Research Center (IPRC), School of Ocean, Earth Science, and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawaii
  • August 2005 – April 2008: Post-doctoral research scientist, IPRC, SOEST, University of Hawaii
  • August 2003 – July 2005: Post-doctoral research scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland
Research Interests
  • Earth system predictability including not only physical variables but also biogeochemical cycle on intraseasonal-interannual-to-interdecadal time scales
  • Near-term climate predictability, prediction, and projection
  • Paleomonsoon variability
  • Atmospheric teleconnection associated with the trans-basin variability


  1. J.-Y. Lee, X. Fu, and B. Wang, 2016: Predictability and prediction of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: A review on progress and current status. In the third edition of the Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, C.-P. Chang et al. (ads). World Scientific, pp385, ISBN: 978-981-3200-90-6.
  2. M. C. Wheeler, H.-J. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and J. C. Gottschalck, 2016: Real-tiime forecasting of modes of tropical intraseasonal variability: the Madden-Julian and boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation. In the third edition of the Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, C.-P. Chang et al. (ads). World Scientific, pp385, ISBN: 978-981-3200-90-6.
  3. Jing-Jia Luo, C. Yuan, W. Sasaki, S. Behera, Y. Masumoto, T. Yamagata, J.-Y. Lee, and S. Masson, 2016: Current status of intraseasonal-seasonal-to-interannual prediction of the Indo-Pacific climate. In Info-Pacific Climate Variability and Predictability, S. Behera and T. Yamagata (Eds). World Scientific, pp324, ISBN:978-981-4696-61-6.
  4. June-Yi Lee and Bin Wang, 2012: Seasonal climate predictability of atmospheric circulation. In Climate Models, Leonard M. Druyan (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0135-2, InTech, pp. 336, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/seasonal-climate-predictability-of-atmospheric-circulation
  5. Changma White Book, 2011: Kyong-Hwan Seo and June-Yi Lee (Eds), Korean Meteorological Administration, pp 250
  6. Lau, William K.-M., Kyu-Myong Kim, and June-Yi Lee, 2004: Interannual variability, global teleconnection, and potential predictability associated with the Asian summer monsoon. In East Asian Monsoon. Ed. C.-P. Chang. World Scentific Series on Meteorology of East Asia.

Refereed publications

  1. J.-E. Chu, B. Wang, J.-Y. Lee, and K.-J. Ha*, 2017: Boreal summer intraseasonal phases identified by nonlinear multivariate empirical orthogonal function-based self-organizing map (ESOM) analysis. J. Climate in press. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0660.1
  2. J.-Y. Lee et al., 2017: the long-term variability of Changma in the East Asian summer monsoon system: a review and revisit. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., in press. Doi:10.1007/s13143-017-0032-5 
  3. K.-J. Ha*, J.-E. Chu, J.-Y. Lee, and K.-S. Yun, 2017: Interbasin coupling between the tropical Indian and Pacific Ocean on inter annual timescale: observation and CMIP5 reproduction. Clim. Dyn., 48, 459-475. Doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3087-6 
  4. Ding, R., J. Li, Y.-H. Tseng, K.-J. Ha, S. Zhao, and J.-Y. Lee, 2016: Interdecadal change in the lagged relationship between the Pacific-South American pattern and ENSO. Climate Dyn, 47, 2867-2884. Doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3002-1
  5. Yun, K.-S., Y.-W. Seo, K.-J. Ha*, J.-Y. Lee, and A. Kitoh, 2016: The seasonally varying effect of the Tibetan Plateau on Northern Hemispheric blocking frequency and amplitude. Climate Dyn, 47, 2527-2541. Doi:10.1007/s00382-016-2981-2 
  6. Choi, J., S.-W. Son, K.-H. Seo, J.-Y. Lee, and H.-S. Kang, 2016: Potential for long-lead prediction of the western North Pacific monsoon circulation beyond seasonal time scales. GRL43, 1736-1743. Doi:10.1002/2016GL067902
  7. Chen, W., J.-Y. Lee*, K.-J. Ha, K.-S. Yun, and R. Lu, 2016: Intensification of the Western North Pacific Anticyclone response to the short decaying El Nino event due to greenhouse warming. J. Climate, 29, 3607-3627. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0195.1
  8. Hsu, P.-C.*, J.-Y. Lee, and K.-J. Ha, 2016: Influence of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation on rainfall extremes in southern China, Int. J. Climatol., 36, 1403-1412. Doi:10.1002/joc.4433
  9. Choi, J., S.-W. Son*, Y.-G. Ham, J.-Y. Lee, and H.-M. Kim, 2016: Seasonal-to-interannual prediction skills of near-surface air temperature in the CMIP5 decadal hindcast experiments. J. Climate, 29, 1511-1527. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0182.1
  10. Lee, J.-Y. and K.-J. Ha*, 2015: Understanding of interdecadal changes in variability and predictability of the Northern Hemisphere summer tropical-extratropical teleconnection. J. Clim., 28, 8634-8647. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0154.1
  11. Lee, S.-S.*, B. Wang, D. E. Waliser, J. M. Neena, and J.-Y. Lee, 2015: Predictability and prediction skill of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation in the Intraseasonal Variability Hindcast Experiment. Clim. Dyn., 45, 2123-2135. Doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2461-5
  12. Chen, W., J.-Y. Lee, R. Lu, B. Dong, and K.-J. Ha*, 2014: Intensified impact of Tropical Atlantic SST on the Western North Pacific summer climate under a weakened Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Clim. Dyn., 45, 2033-2046. Doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2454-4.
  13. Lee, J.-Y., B. Wang, K.-H. Seo*, K.-J. Ha, A. Kitoh, and J. Liu, 2015: Effects of mountain uplift on global monsoon precipitation. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 275-290. Doi:10.1007/s13143-015-0077-2
  14. Seo, K.-H.*, J.-H. Son, J.-Y. Lee, and H.-S. Park, 2015: Northern East Asian monsoon precipitation revealed by airmass variability and its prediction. J. Climate, 28, 6221-6223. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00526.1
  15. Min, S.-K., S.-W. Son, K.-H. Seo, J.-S. Kug*, S.-I. An, Y.-S. Choi, J.-H. Jeong, B.-M. Kim, J.-W. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, and M.-I. Lee, 2015: Changes in weather and climate extremes over Korea and possible causes: A review. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 103-121. Doi:10.1007/s13143-015-0066-5
  16. Alessandri, A.*, A. Borrelli, A. Cherchi, S. Materia, A. Navarra, J.-Y. Lee, and B. Wang, 2015: Prediction of Indian summer monsoon onset using dynamical sub-seasonal forecasts: effects of realistic initialization of the atmosphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 778-793. Doi:10.1175/MWR-D-14-00187.1
  17. Fu, X.*, W. Wang, J.-Y. Lee, B. Wang, K. Kikuchi, J. Xu, J. Li, and S. Weaver, 2015: Distinctive roles of air-sea coupling on different MJO events: A new perspective revealed from the DYNAMO/CINDY Field Campaign. Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 794-812. Doi:10.1175/MWR-D-14-00221.1
  18. Jeong, H.-I., J.-B. Ahn, J.-Y. Lee* A. Alessandri, and H. H. Hendon, 2015: Interdecadal change of interannual variability and predictability of two types of ENSO. Clim. Dyn., 44, 1073-1091. Doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2127-3
  19. Wang, B., J.-Y. Lee*, and B. Xiang, 2015: Asian summer monsoon rainfall predictability: A predictable mode analysis. Clim. Dyn., 44, 61-74. Doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2218-1
  20. Seo, Y.-W., H.-J. Kim, K.-S. Yun, J.-Y. Lee, K.-J. Ha*, and J.-Y. Moon, 2014: Future change of extreme temperature climate indices over East Asia with uncertainties estimation in the CMIP5. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 50(1), 609-624.
  21. Moon, H. J., B.-H. Kim, H.-E. Oh, J.-Y. Lee, and K.-J. Ha*, 2014: Future change using the CIMP5 MME and Best models: I. Near and long-term future change of temperature and precipitation over East Asia. Atmos. 24(3), 403-417.
  22. Alessandri, A.*, M. De Felice, N. Zeng, A. Mariotti, Y. Pan, A. Cherchi, J.-Y. Lee, B. Wang, K.-J. Ha, P. Ruti, and V. Artale, 2014: Robust assessment of the expansion and retreat of Mediterranean climate in the 21st century. Nature-Scientific Reports, 4, doi:10.1038/sprep07211.
  23. Neena, J. M.*, X. Jiang, D. Waliser, J.-Y. Lee, and B. Wang, 2014: Eastern Pacific intraseasonal variability: A predictability perspective. J. Clim. 27, 8869-8883.
  24. Xiang, B., B. Wang, J. Li, M. Zhao, and J.-Y. Lee, 2014: Understanding the anthropogenically forced change of equatorial Pacific trade winds in coupled climate models. J. Clim., 27, 8510-8526.
  25. Yun, K.-S., Y.-W. Seo, K.-J. Ha, J.-Y. Lee*, and Y. Kajikawa, 2014: Interdecadal changes in the Asian winter monsoon variability and its relationship with ENSO and AO. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 531-540 (2014. 8)
  26. Yun, K.-S., J.-Y. Lee, and K.-J. Ha*, 2014: Recent intensification of the South and East Asian monsoon contrast associated with an increase in the zonal tropical SST gradient. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 8104-8116
  27. Jia, XiaoJing, J.-Y. Lee*, L. Hai, A. Alessandri, and K.-J. Ha, 2014: Interdecadal change in the Northern Hemisphere seasonal climate prediction skill: Part II. Predictablity and Prediction Skill. Clim. Dyn., 43, 1611-1630
  28. Jia, XiaoJing, J.-Y. Lee*, L. Hai, A. Alessandri, and K.-J. Ha, 2013: Interdecadal change in the Northern Hemisphere seasonal climate prediction skill: Part I. The leading forced mode of atmospheric circulation. Clim. Dyn., 43, 1595-1609
  29. Chu, J. E., K.-J. Ha, J.-Y. Lee*, B. Wang, B.-H. Kim, and E. C. Chung, 2013: Future change of the Indian Ocean basin0wide and dipole modes in the CMIP5. Clim. Dyn. in press, Doi:10.1007/s00382-013-2002-7
  30. Xiang, B.*, B. Wang, A. Lauer, J.-Y. Lee, and Q. Ding, 2013: Upper tropospheric warming intensifies sea surface warming. Clim. Dyn. in press, Doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1928-0
  31. Neena, M. J.*, J.-Y. Lee, D. Waliser, B. Wang, and X. Jiang, 2014: Predictability of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the Intraseasonal Variability Hindcast Experiment (ISVHE). J. Clim., 4531-4543.
  32. Lee, J.-Y., B. Wang, K.-H. Seo* J.-S. Kug, Y.-S. Choi, Y. Kosaka, and K.-J. Pa, 2014: Future change of Northern Hemisphere summer tropical-extratropical teleconnection in CMIP5 models. J. Clim. in press. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00261.1
  33. Chowdary, J. S., R. Attada, J.-Y. Lee*, Y. Kosaka, J.-J. Luo, C. Gnanaseelan, A. Parekh, and D.-Y. Lee, 2014: Seasonal prediction of distinct climate anomalies in the summer 2010 over the tropical Indian Ocean and South Asia. J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 92, 1-16
  34. Wang, B., S.-Y. Yim, J.-Y. Lee*, J. Liu, and K.-J. Ha, 2014: Future change of Asian-Australian monsoon under RCP4.5 anthropogenic warming scenario. Clim Dyn, 83-100, doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1769-x. 
  35. Lee, J.-Y., and B. Wang*, 2014: Future change of global monsoon in the CMIP5. Clim Dyn, 101-119 Doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1564-0.
  36. Sooraj, K. P.*, K.-H. Seo, B. Wang, and J.-Y. Lee, 2012: Recent tendency to drought events over the Central Indian region: Pacific Ocean origin and insights from moisture budgets. International J. of Climatology, 33, 2781-2798.
  37. Fu, X.*, J.-Y. Lee, P. C. Hsu, H. Taniguchi, B. Wang, W. Wang, and S. Weaver, 2013: Multi-model MJO forecasting during DYNAMO/CINDY period. Clim Dyn, 41, 1067-1081  
  38. Fu, X.*, J.-Y. Lee, B. Wang, W. Wang, and F. Vitart, 2013: Intraseasonal forecasting of Asian summer monsoon in four operational and research models. J. Climate, 26, 4186-4203  
  39. Lee, J.-Y., S.-S. Lee, B. Wang, K.-J. Ha*, and J.-G. Jhun, 2013: Seasonal prediction and predictability of the Asian winter temperature variability. Clim Dyn, 41, 573-587
  40. Lee, S.-S., J.-Y. Lee*, K.-J. Ha, B. Wang, A. Kitoh, Y. Kajikawa, and M. Abe, 2013: Role of Tibetan Plateau on climatological annual variation of mean atmospheric circulation and storm track activity. J. Climate, 26, 5270-5286.
  41. Moon, J.-Y., B. Wang, K.-J. Ha*, and J.-Y. Lee, 2013: Teleconnections associated with Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon intraseasonal oscillation. Clim Dyn, 40 (11-12), 2761-2774.
  42. Shen, S. S. P., J.-Y. Lee, and W. K. M. Lau, 2013: Bayesian optimal blending and credible interval estimation for satellite and ground rainfall observations. Adv. Adapt. Data. Anal., 5(2), 1350006.
  43. Wang, B.*, B. Xiang, and J.-Y. Lee, 2013: Subtropical high predictability establishes a promising way for monsoon and tropical storm prediction. PNAS, 110 (8), 2718-2722, doi:10.1073/pnas.1214626110.
  44. Liu, J., B. Wang, M. Cane*, S.-Y. Yim, and J.-Y. Lee, 2013: Divergent global precipitation changes induced by natural versus anthropogenic forcing. Nature, 493, 656-659. Doi:10.1038/nature11784.
  45. Lee, J.-Y.*, B. Wang, M. Wheeler, X. Fu, D. Waliser, and I.-S. Kang, 2013: Real-time multivariate indices for the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation over the Asian summer
  46. Kosaka, Y.*, J. S. Chowdary, S.-P. Xie, Y.-M. Min, and J.-Y. Lee, 2012: Limitations of seasonal predictability for summer climate over East Asia and the Northwestern Pacific. J. Climate, 25, 7574-7589. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00009.1
  47. Yeh, S.-W., Y.-G. Ham*, J.-Y. Lee, 2012: Changes in the tropical Pacific SST trend from CMIP3 to CMIP5 and its implication of ENSO. J. Climate, 25, 7764-7771. Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00304.1
  48. Ha, K.-J., J.-E. Chu, J.-Y. Lee*, B. Wang et al., 2012: What causes cool summer over northern Central Asia, East Asia, and central North America during 2009? Environ. Res. Lett., 7. 44015, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044015
  49. Jia, X.*, H. Lin, J.-Y. Lee, and B. Wang, 2012: Season-dependent forecast skill of the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns over the Pacific North-American region. J. Climate, 25, 7248-7265, Doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00522.1
  50. Liu, Jian*, B. Wang, S.-Y. Yim, J.-Y. Lee, J.-G. Jhun, and K.-J. Ha, 2012: What drives the global summer monsoon over the past millennium? Clim. Dyn., 39, 1063-1072
  51. Kug, J.-S., Y.-G. Ham*, J.-Y. Lee, and F.-F. Jin, 2012: Improved simulation of two types of El Nino in CMIP5 models. Environ. Res. Lett. 7, 034002, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034002
  52. Wang, H., B. Wang, F. H., Q. Ding, and J.-Y. Lee, 2012: Interdecadal change of the boreal summer circumglobal teleconnection (1958-2010). Geophys Res Lett, 39, L12704, doi:10.1029/2012GL052371
  53. Lee, S.-S., J.-Y. Lee, B. Wang, K.-J. Ha*, K.-Y. Heo et al. 2012: Interdecadal changes in the storm track activity over the North Pacific and North Atlantic. Clim Dyn, 39, 313-327.
  54. Jeong, H.-I., D.-Y. Lee, K. Ashok*, J.-B. Ahn, J.-Y. Lee et al. 2012: Assessment of the APCC coupled MME suite in predicting the distinctive climate impacts of two flavors of ENSO during boreal winter. Clim Dyn, 39, 475-493
  55. Hsu, P.-C.*, T. Li, Y.-C. Lin, M.-M. Lu, and J.-Y. Lee, 2012: A spatial-temporal projection method for seasonal prediction of spring rainfall in Northern Taiwan. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 90(2), 179-190. 
  56. Sohn, S.-J., Y.-M. Min, J.-Y. Lee*, C.-Y. Tam et al. 2012: Assessment of probabilistic long-lead prediction of the APCC multi-model system and statistical model for the Asian summer monsoon precipitation (1983-2010). JGR, 117, D04102, doi:10.1029/2011JD016308
  57. Lee, S.-S., J.-Y. Lee, B. Wang, F.-F. Jin, W.-J. Lee, and K.-J. Ha*, 2011: A comparison of climatological subseasonal variations in the wintertime storm track activity between the North Pacific and Atlantic: local energetics and moisture effect. Clim Dyn, 37, 2455-2469
  58. Lee, June-Yi*, B. Wang, Q. Ding, K.-J. Ha, J.-B. Ahn, A. Kumar, B. Stern, and O. Alves, 2011: How predictable is the northern hemisphere summer upper-tropospheric circulation? Clim Dyn, 37, 1189-1203, 
  59. Fu, Xiouhua*, B. Wang, J.-Y. Lee, W. Wang, and Li. Gao, 2011: Sensitivity of dynamical intraseasonal prediction skills to different initial conditions. Mon Wea Rev, 139, 2572-2592 
  60. Seo, Kyong-Hwan, Jun-Hyeok Seo, and June-Yi Lee, 2011: A new look at Changma, Atmos Kor Meteor Soc, 21(1), 109-121
  61. Lee, S.-S., June-Yi Lee*, K.-J. Ha, B. Wang. J. K. E. Schemm, 2011: Deficiencies and possibilities for long-lead coupled climate prediction of the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon. Clim Dyn, 36, 1173-1188, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0832-0. 
  62. Lee, June-Yi*, B. Wang, I.-S. Kang, J. Shukla et al., 2010: How are seasonal prediction skills related to models’ performance on mean state and annual cycle? Clim. Dyn, 35, 267-283, DOI 10.1007/s00382-010-0857-4. 
  63. Chowdary, J.*, S.-P. Xie, J.-Y. Lee, Y. Kosaka, and B. Wang, 2010: Predictability of summer Northwest Pacific climate in eleven coupled model hindcasts: local and remote forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22121, doi:10.1029/2010JD014595. 
  64. Wang, Bin*, June-Yi Lee, J. Shukla, I.-S. Kang, C.-K. Park and et al., 2009: Advance and prospectus of seasonal prediction: Assessment of APCC/CliPAS 14-model ensemble retrospective seasonal prediction (1980-2004). Clim. Dyn. 33, 93-117. 
  65. Fu, X.*, B. Wang, Q. Bao, P. Liu, and J.-Y. Lee, 2009: Impacts of initial conditions on monsoon intraseasonal forecasting, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08801, doi:10.1029/2009GL037166. 
  66. Wang, Bin*, June-Yi Lee, I.-S. Kang, J. Shukla, J.-S. Kug, A. Kumar, J. Schemm, J.-J. Luo, T. Yamagata, and C.-K. Park, 2008: How accurately do coupled climate models predict the leading modes of Asian-Australian monsoon interannual variability? Clim. Dyn. 30, 605-619, 
  67. Kug, J.-S.*, J.-Y. Lee, I.-S. Kang, B. Wang, and C.-K. Park, 2008: Optimal multi-model ensemble method in seasonal climate prediction. Asian Pacific J. Atmos. Sci, 44, 259-267. 
  68. Kug, J.-S.*, J.-Y. Lee, and I.-S. Kang, 2008: Systematic error correction of dynamical seasonal prediction using a stepwise pattern project method (SPPM). Mon. Wea. Rev. 136, 3501-3512. 
  69. Kim, H.-M.*, I.-S. Kang, B. Wang, and J.-Y. Lee, 2008: Interannual variations of the boreal summer Intraseasonal variability predicted by ten atnmosphere-ocean coupled models. Clim. Dyn., 30. 485-496. 
  70. Kug, J.-S.*, J.-Y. Lee, and I.-S. Kang, 2007: Global sea surface temperature prediction using multi-model ensemble. Mon Wea Rev, 135, 3239-3247. 
  71. Kug, J.-S.*, I.-S. Kang, J.-Y. Lee, and J.-G. Jhun, 2004: A statistical approach to Indian Ocean sea surface temperature prediction using a dynamical ENSO prediction. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:09212,doi:10.1029. 
  72. Kang, In-Sik*, June-Yi Lee, and Chung-Kyu Park, 2004: Potential predictability of summer mean precipitation in a dynamical seasonal prediction system with systematic error correction. J. Climate, 17, 834-844. 
  73. Lau, K.-M*., J.-Y. Lee, K.-M. Kim, and I.-S. Kang, 2004: The North Pacific as a regulator of summertime climate over Eurasia and North America. J. Climate 17, 819-833. 
  74. Wang, Bin*, In-Sik Kang, and June-Yi Lee, 2004: Ensemble simulations of Asian-Australian monsoon variabiliy by 11 AGCMs. J. Climate 17, 803-818. 
  75. Ho, Chang-Hoi*, June-Yi Lee, Myoung-Hwan Ahn, and Hee-Sang Lee, 2003: A sudden change in summer rainfall characteristics in Korea during the late 1970s. Int. J. Climatol. 23, 117-128. 
  76. Lee, June-Yi., In-Sik. Kang, and Chang-Hoi Ho, 1999: A statistical model for the long-range forecast of spring temperature in Korea. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 35, 372-383.